Reliabilism has been a significant line of response to the Gettier problem among philosophers, originating with work by Alvin Goldman in the 1960s. According to reliabilism, a belief is justified (or otherwise supported in such a way as to count towards knowledge) only if it is produced by processes that typically yield a sufficiently high ratio of true to false beliefs. In other words, this theory states that a true belief counts as knowledge only if it is produced by a reliable belief-forming process. Examples of reliable processes include: standard perceptual processes, remembering, good reasoning, and introspection. 
It is has been established that the length of the need has an impact of the pain experienced; longer needles are more likely to reduce the pain perceived. Current recommendations are inch needles for infants and newborns, 1 inch needles to be used for toddlers and adolescents, and inch needles to be used for adults. The recommended needle gauge has been established to be 23-25. In addition, rapid injection has been established to lessen the pain experienced. In addition, it has also been found that when administering several injections, the pain scores experienced during the first needle is significantly lower than the pain scores experienced during the last injection. Lastly, using the Z-track administration technique lessens pain by reducing leakage and irritation of the medication in the needle into the subcutaneous tissues (Abdel Razek & El-Dein, 2009). Z-tracking technique involves pull the skin about 2-3 centimeters aside before injection, followed by releasing the skin immediately after removing the needle, which results in a disjointed pathway that locks down the medication in the intended place.