1 Historical review: Some topics are better understood if a brief historical review of the topic is presented to lead into the discussion of the moment. Such topics might include "a biographical sketch of a war hero," "an upcoming execution of a convicted criminal," or "drugs and the younger generation." Obviously there are many, many more topics that could be introduced by reviewing the history of the topic before the writer gets down to the nitty gritty of his paper. It is important that the historical review be brief so that it does not take over the paper.
History records Martin Luther as a savior of Christianity. He was concerned with the well-being of the Catholic Church and its policy of granting forgiveness through indulgence rather than penance. Luther's actions were neither cinematic nor groundbreaking. The message of 95 Thesis gave the summary and expressed the feelings of many of his peers already had about the corruption of Christ's teachings.
Luther illustrated the spiritual, material, and psychological truths behind abuses in the practice of buying and selling indulgences. He was not out to pick a fight or to have his own way; his purpose was to uphold the truth, for the cause of Christ.
Galileo is put into home arrest as an intellectual prisoner of the Inquisition until his death nine years later. In his silent life in the home arrest, he writes the Discorsi , the sum of his scientific theories and discoveries, but the pages of the manuscript are confiscated by the Church as they are written. Galileo is finally able to hide a copy, which he later hands over to his student Andrea to smuggle out of Italy. In the end, Galileo declares: "I have betrayed my profession. Any man who does what I have done must not be tolerated in the ranks of science."