But there were tensions. Some Northerners, including Payne, did not approve of the emotional worship style of their Southern counterparts; he stressed that "true" Christian worship meant proper decorum and attention to reading the Bible. Many Southerners were disinterested in Payne's admonitions. They liked their emotive form of worship and saw no reason to cast it aside. Nevertheless, most black Southerners ended up joining independent black churches that had been formed in the North before the Civil War. These included the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ). In 1870, Southerners formed the Colored (now "Christian") Methodist Episcopal Church, and in 1894, black Baptists formed the National Baptist Convention.
In ministering to the souls of the Confederate army, Father Sheeran also suffered greatly in body and mind. His diary recounts endless illnesses, exhaustion, and hunger. He falls asleep to the sound of Yankee shelling. Toward the end of the war, although granted permission to minister to captured Confederate soldiers behind enemy lines, he nonetheless finds himself imprisoned by the Yankee army. In a louse-infested stable converted into a jail, Father Sheeran suffers all the indignities and horrors of Civil War prisons—scurvy, filth, poor rations, a single open-air latrine, and harsh treatment because of his Confederate loyalties. Although he was eventually released, for a time his prospects are grim. In his lowest moment in the prison, he writes: “I think much of death, but care little about it, could I but receive the benefits of the sacraments. I could not murmur against Providence, for I knew I deserved much more severe punishment at the hands of God, though I was conscious I did not deserve it from man.”
Egypt provided many of the themes and much of the detail. From the age of the Ptolemies, Alexandria was the ancient cooking pot of religious fusion. Here, Hellenised Judaism influenced the early Christians. From Egypt, Catholicism copied its rituals and ceremonies, including relics, demonology, and monasticism. The Patriarchs of Alexandria wrote much of Catholic theology and it was probably in Alexandria that a profound and detailed Buddhist influence impressed itself upon the faith.